Thus, chivalry has hierarchical meanings from simply a heavily armed horseman to a code of conduct. Thou shalt believe all that the Church teaches and thou shalt observe all its directions. Thou shalt defend the church.
Not objectively real From a scientific viewpoint, elves are not considered objectively real. Where enough people have believed in the reality of elves that those beliefs then had real effects in the world, they can be understood as part of people's world viewand as a social reality: Even in the twenty-first century, fantasy stories about elves have been argued both to reflect and shape their audiences' understanding of the real world,   and traditions about Santa Claus and his elves relate to the real-world economics of Christmas.
Accordingly, beliefs about elves and their social functions have varied over time and space. Fitting elves into Christian cosmologies Title page of Daemonologie by James VI and Iwhich tried to explain traditional Scottish beliefs in terms of Christian scholarship.
There is no doubt that beliefs about elves have their origins before the conversion to Christianity and associated Christianization of north-west Europe. For this reason, belief in elves has, from the Middle Ages through into recent scholarship, often been labelled " pagan " and a " superstition ".
However, almost all surviving textual sources about elves were produced by Christians whether Anglo-Saxon monks, medieval Icelandic poets, early modern ballad-singers, nineteenth-century folklore collectors, or even twentieth-century fantasy authors.
Attested beliefs about elves therefore need to be understood as part of Germanic-speakers' Christian culture and not merely relic of their pre-Christian religion.
Accordingly, investigating the relationship between beliefs in elves and Christian cosmology has been a preoccupation of scholarship about elves both in early times and in modern research.
Identifying elves with the demons of Judaeo-Christian-Mediterranean tradition. The consensus of modern scholarship is that Snorri's elves are based on angels and demons of Christian cosmology. Likewise, the early modern Scottish people who confessed to encountering elves seem not to have thought of themselves as having dealings with the Devil.
Nineteenth-century Icelandic folklore about elves mostly presents them as a human agricultural community parallel to the visible human community, that may or may not be Christian.
This approach also appears in the Old English poem Beowulfwhich lists elves among the races springing from Cain's murder of Abel. One famous Icelandic folktale explains elves as the lost children of Eve. Since belief in supernatural beings is so ubiquitous in human cultures, however, scholars no longer believe that such explanations are valid.
Elves were certainly often seen as a cause of illness, and indeed the English word oaf seems to have originated as a form of the elf: Although this word took a variety of forms in different Old English dialects, these converged on the form elf during the Middle English period.
The Germanic word presumably originally meant "white person", perhaps as a euphemism. This is not necessarily the case, however.
For example, because the cognates suggest matt white rather than shining white, and because in medieval Scandinavian texts whiteness is associated with beauty, Alaric Hall has suggested that elves may have been called "the white people" because whiteness was associated with specifically feminine beauty.
While often mentioned, this etymology is not widely accepted. These names may have been influenced by Celtic names beginning in Albio- such as Albiorix. The most famous name of this kind is Alboin. These names suggest that elves were positively regarded in early Germanic culture.
Of the many words for supernatural beings in Germanic languages, the only ones regularly used in personal names are elf and words denoting pagan gods, suggesting that elves were considered similar to gods. These seem to associate elves fairly consistently with woods and valleys.
Medieval English evidence has, therefore, attracted quite extensive research and debate. This tradition continues into later English-language traditions too: Christ and demons attacking the psalmist.
In one or two Old English medical texts, elves might be envisaged as inflicting illness with projectiles.'The Wife of Bath's Tale' is one of the stories written by author Geoffrey Chaucer in 'The Canterbury Tales.' Learn more about 'The Wife of Bath's Tale' and test your knowledge with a quiz.
Hence, the beginning of Sir Gawain & the Green Knight (cs) describes how, while other refugees fled to Rome and Tuscany and Lombardy, Felix Brutus led the Trojans to Britain (a legend given in more detail in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain, ).
We will begin with Old English poetry, including the great heroic poem Beowulf, continue with Middle English literature, including works by Chaucer and the Gawain poet, and then move on to Shakespeare, completing the course with Milton's Paradise Lost.
Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight:The Importance of Literary Genre and Time Difference"They said that of all the kings upon earth / he was the man most gracious and fair-minded, / kindest to his people and keenest to win fame," (Beowulf 97 ln.
). Sir Gawain needs to past through a series of trials that test different virtues that a knight is supposed to possess. thus failing to keep his oath.
but for your blood. a magical sash or green girdle who is supposed to protect the wearer.
scene balanced against scene. “Sir Gawain”, “Pearl” and “Piers Plowman”Sir Gawain and The Green Knight is a verse romance of lines preserved in a manuscript, copied in about , and it contains three religious poems.
The author is unknown.