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Ku Klux Klan Wikipedia says: For other uses, see KKK disambiguation. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South during the Reconstruction Eraespecially by using violence against African American leaders.
With numerous chapters across the South, it was suppressed aroundthrough federal law enforcement. Members made their own, often colorful, costumes: Taking inspiration from the film Birth of a Nationwhich mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure.
Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacyoften took a pro- prohibition stance, and it opposed Catholics and Jewswhile also stressing its opposition to the Catholic Church at a time of high immigration from the mostly Catholic nations of Central Europe and Southern Europe.
It rapidly declined in the later half of the s. They have focused on opposition to the Civil Rights Movementoften using violence and murder to suppress activists.
Three Klans First KKK The first Klan was founded in Pulaski, Tennesseesometime between December and August by six former officers of the Confederate army  as a fraternal social club inspired at least in part by the then largely defunct Sons of Malta.
It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: The manual of rituals was printed by Laps D.
The members had conjured up a veritable Frankenstein.
They had played with an engine of power and mystery, though organized on entirely innocent lines, and found themselves overcome by a belief that something must lie behind it all—that there was, after all, a serious purpose, a work for the Klan to do. For example, Confederate veteran John W.
Morton founded a chapter in Nashville, Tennessee. In andthe federal government passed the Enforcement Actswhich were intended to prosecute and suppress Klan crimes.
It seriously weakened the black political establishment through its use of assassinations and threats of violence; it drove some people out of politics.
On the other hand, it caused a sharp backlash, with passage of federal laws that historian Eric Foner says were a success in terms of "restoring order, reinvigorating the morale of Southern Republicans, and enabling blacks to exercise their rights as citizens".
Rable argues that the Klan was a political failure and therefore was discarded by the Democratic leaders of the South. More fundamentally, it declined because it failed to achieve its central objective — the overthrow of Republican state governments in the South.
They were described as acting as the military arm of the Democratic Party and are attributed with helping white Democrats regain control of state legislatures throughout the South. Second KKK See also: Starting init adopted a modern business system of using full-time paid recruiters and appealed to new members as a fraternal organization, of which many examples were flourishing at the time.
The national headquarters made its profit through a monopoly of costume sales, while the organizers were paid through initiation fees.
It grew rapidly nationwide at a time of prosperity. Reflecting the social tensions pitting urban versus rural America, it spread to every state and was prominent in many cities.
The second KKK preached "One Hundred Percent Americanism" and demanded the purification of politics, calling for strict morality and better enforcement of prohibition. Its official rhetoric focused on the threat of the Catholic Churchusing anti-Catholicism and nativism.
During the resurgence of the second Klan during the s, its publicity was handled by the Southern Publicity Association —within the first six months of the Associations national recruitment campaign, Klan membership had increased by 85, Internal divisions, criminal behavior by leaders, and external opposition brought about a collapse in membership, which had dropped to about 30, by It finally faded away in the s.
During this period, they often forged alliances with Southern police departments, as in Birmingham, Alabama ; or with governor's offices, as with George Wallace of Alabama. As ofresearchers estimate that there are just over 30 active Klan groups exist in the United States,  with about chapters.
Tuscaloosa, AlabamaIndependent Monitor, September 1, Hubbs, Searching for Freedom after the Civil War: Klansman, Carpetbagger, Scalawag, and Freedman InMississippi Governor William L. Sharkey reported that disorder, lack of control, and lawlessness were widespread; in some states armed bands of Confederate soldiers roamed at will.
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