French Revolution essay questions This collection of French Revolution essay questions has been written and compiled by Alpha History authors, for use by teachers and students.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Further information: As the last premier of the Third Republic, being a reactionary by inclination, he blamed the Third Republic's democracy for France's sudden defeat by Germany.
He set up a paternalistic, authoritarian regime that actively collaborated with Germany, Vichy's official neutrality notwithstanding. The Vichy government cooperated with the Nazis' racial policies.
The yellow zone was under Italian administration. Because of its unique situation in the history of France, its contested legitimacy,  and the generic nature of its official name, the "French State" is most often represented in English by the synonyms "Vichy France", "Vichy regime", "government of Vichy", or in context, simply "Vichy".
The territory under the control of the Vichy government was the unoccupied, southern portion of France south of the Line of Demarcationas established by the Armistice of 22 Juneand the overseas French territories, such as French North Africa, which was "an integral part of Vichy", and where all antisemitic Vichy's laws were also implemented.
This was called the Unbesetztes Gebiet Unoccupied zone by the Germans, and known as the Zone libre Free Zone in France, or less formally as the "southern zone" zone du sud especially after Operation Antonthe invasion of the Zone libre by German forces in November Other contemporary colloquial terms for the Zone libre were based on abbreviation and wordplay, such as the "zone nono", for the non-occupied Zone.
The Reich government at the time was not interested in attempting to enforce piecemeal annexations in the West although it later did annex Luxembourg - it operated under the assumption that Germany's new western border would be determined in peace negotiations that would be attended by all of the Western Allies, thus producing a frontier that would be recognized by all of the major powers.
Since Adolf Hitler's overall territorial ambitions were not limited to recovering Alsace-Lorraine, and since Britain was never brought to terms, these peace negotiations never took place. The Nazis had some intention of annexing a large swath of northeastern France and replacing that region's inhabitants with German settlers, and initially forbade French refugees from returning to this region.
These restrictions, which were never thoroughly enforced, were basically abandoned following the invasion of the Soviet Unionwhich had the effect of turning the Nazis' territorial ambitions almost exclusively to the East.
German troops guarding the boundary line of the northeastern Zone interdite were withdrawn on the night of 17—18 December although the line remained in place on paper for the remainder of the occupation.
German law applied to the region, its inhabitants were conscripted into the Wehrmacht [ citation needed ] and pointedly the customs posts separating France from Germany were placed back where they had been between Similarly, a sliver of French territory in the Alps was under direct Italian administration from June to September Throughout the rest of the country, civil servants were under the formal authority of French ministers in Vichy.
German laws, however, took precedence over French ones in the occupied territories, and the Germans often rode roughshod over the sensibilities of Vichy administrators. On 11 Novemberfollowing the landing of the Allies in North Africa Operation Torchthe Axis launched Operation Antonoccupying southern France and disbanding the strictly limited " Armistice Army " that Vichy had been allowed by the armistice.
Legitimacy[ edit ] Vichy's claim to be the legitimate French government was denied by Free France and by all subsequent French governments  after the war.
The main arguments advanced against Vichy's right to incarnate the continuity of the French state were based on the pressure exerted by Pierre Laval, former Premier in the Third Republic, on the deputies in Vichy, and on the absence of 27 deputies and senators who had fled on the ship Massiliaand thus could not take part in the vote.
The legitimacy of the Vichy government was recognized by the United Kingdomthe United Statesand other nations, which extended diplomatic recognition to Petain's government. Ideology[ edit ] The Vichy regime sought an anti-modern counter-revolution. The traditionalist right in France, with strength in the aristocracy and among Catholics, had never accepted the republican traditions of the French Revolution.
It demanded a return to traditional lines of culture and religion and embraced authoritarianism, while dismissing democracy.
Payne found that it was "distinctly rightist and authoritarian but never fascist ". Such a harsh critique of French society could only generate so much support, and as such Vichy blamed French problems on various "enemies" of France, the chief of which was Britain, the "eternal enemy" that had supposedly conspired via Masonic lodges first to weaken France and then to pressure France into declaring war on Germany in After the eight-month Phoney Warthe Germans launched their offensive in the west on 10 May Within days, it became clear that French military forces were overwhelmed and that military collapse was imminent.
Many officials, including Prime Minister Paul Reynaudwanted to move the government to French territories in North Africa, and continue the war with the French Navy and colonial resources.
The latter view called for an immediate cessation of hostilities. Communications were poor and thousands of civilian refugees clogged the roads.
In these chaotic conditions, advocates of an armistice gained the upper hand. The Cabinet agreed on a proposal to seek armistice terms from Germany, with the understanding that, should Germany set forth dishonourable or excessively harsh terms, France would retain the option to continue to fight.
General Charles Huntzigerwho headed the French armistice delegation, was told to break off negotiations if the Germans demanded the occupation of all metropolitan France, the French fleet, or any of the French overseas territories. The Germans did not.Revolution in France in The causes of the revolution in France can be divided it to long-term causes and short term causes.
The main long-term cause was the way in which the country was run. Vichy France (French: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War initiativeblog.comted from Paris to Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone" in the southern part of metropolitan France which included French Algeria, it remained responsible for the civil administration of all France as well as the French colonial empire.
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I. Medieval Icelandic crime victims would sell the right to pursue a perpetrator to the highest bidder. 18th century English justice replaced fines with criminals bribing prosecutors to drop cases.
A combination of several social, political and economic causes led to upheaval of the Ancien Régime, the system of law and government in France prior to the French Revolution in During the eighteenth century, French society was divided into three classes, or . A collection of French Revolution essay questions, written and compiled by Alpha History authors for use by teachers and students.