Along with knowledge comes pride. Along with pride comes confidence. Confidence in yourself reflects the confidence people have in you. With pride, confidence, and knowledge, our nation will survive for more generations.
Sumer, Babylon, and Hittites The twelfth to the ninth centuries BC in Mesopotamia are considered a dark age because very little is known about that time period. From the thirteenth century BC to the middle of the sixth century is called the iron age with increasing use of that new technology.
A powerful Elamite kingdom Assyrian writing by Shutruk-nahhunte and his son Kutir-nahhunte conquered several hundred settlements and captured Babylon, ending the Kassite dynasty and taking away the statue of Marduk in BC. Kutir-nahhunte died about BC and was succeeded as king of Elam by his brother Shilkhak-Inshushinak, who used Babylonian tribute to build up their capital of Susa.
Shilkhak launched military campaigns against Aramaean settlements to the west and north along the Tigris River. The year reign of Ashur-dan was ending with a struggle for power in Assyria.
A new Babylonian dynasty emerged in Isin; Nebuchadrezzar I r. However, his attacks against Assyria were successfully resisted. Both the Babylonians and the Assyrians fought against the Lullubi tribes in the eastern hills and the nomadic tribes in the western deserts.
Assyrian King Tiglath-pileser I r. Tiglath-pileser also led his troops to the west as far as Lebanon. However, these victories were not followed up with effective imperialistic administration as the Aramaeans were able to fight back later. Tiglath-pileser entertained himself hunting big game and claimed he killed lions.
He organized water projects and collected literature in the world's oldest extant library. Tiglath-pileser did attack Babylon and plunder it, but he withdrew.
For the next two centuries Assyria and Babylon co-existed. In the eleventh century BC Nebuchadrezzar I was celebrated in an epic poem; Sinleqeunnimi of Uruk produced a humanized version of the Epic of Gilgamesh ; and another poet expressed the workings of divine justice, an important concept in Babylonian religion.
Tiglath-pileser's son Ashur-bel-kala r. Assyrian laws were stricter and their treatment of women worse than among the Babylonians, Hittitesand Israelites.
In Assyria women could be divorced for no reason without being given any money, could be killed or maimed for adultery, and had to wear a veil outside the house, except for prostitutes who were forbidden to wear a veil. In his reign BC Adad-nirari II fought numerous military campaigns of expansion and made a treaty with Babylon that lasted eighty years.
His son Tukulti-Ninurta II began reporting hostile attacks as justification for his campaigns and rebuilt the walls of Ashur. Continued expansion by his son Ashurnasirpal II r.
Ashurnasirpal rebuilt Kalakh and made it his capital; 69, guests attended the opening ceremonies at his new palace. Ashurnasirpal's son Shalmaneser III r. In Babylon Marduk-zakir-shumi called upon Shalmaneser and the Assyrians to help him establish his kingship against a challenge by his younger brother, who was defeated by Shalmaneser's army in BC.
Shalmaneser went on to defeat and take tribute from the Chaldeans and plunder the land of Namri. The next year Shalmaneser led an army ofagainst Arzashkun, the capital city of Urartu's King Aram r. Aram was overthrown by Sarduri I, whose dynasty in Urartu lasted a quarter of a millennium.
Urartu kings Menua r. At the end of his reign the crown prince rebelled against Shalmaneser; the dying King turned to his younger son who became Shamsi-Adad V, won the civil war with Babylon's help, and reigned for a dozen years, ungratefully attacking Babylon and the Chaldeans.
After Adad-nirari III died in BC, his four sons ruled in succession; but none of them were noteworthy until the fourth, Tiglath-pileser III, became king of Assyria in BC, though some believe that he was not a royal son but a general who took power by force.
Massive deportations were used to break up regional loyalties. In BC 65, Iranians were displaced, and laterwere moved; 30, Syrians were sent to the Zagros mountains while 18, Aramaeans from the Tigris area went to northern Syria.2, years ago, someone carved a message to the ancient king Esarhaddon in a tunnel under a tomb.
The message remained sealed away, unseen and undocumented by archaeologists, until . When we explore these topics we will contextualise them with information about the lives led by ordinary Assyrian families.
Taking this course will provide you with an overview of the political, social, religious, and military history of the world’s first superpower.
Assyria was the region located in the ancient Near East which, under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, reached from Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) through Asia.
Assyrian Scribes, Panel of Sennacherib ( BC) Nineveh, northern Iraq Neo-Assyrian, about BC Artifact location: British Museum. One scribe hold a hinged writing board covered in wax.
Actual examples of the boards have been excavated at the Assyrian city of Nimrud. Information could be recorded and then the wax melted and .
The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/ Mythopoeic Thought. The pioneering work on this subject was The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East by Henri Frankfort, H.A.
Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, and William A. Irwin (University of Chicago Press, , -- also once issued by Penguin as Before Philosophy). The Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform: Pictographs (symbols that visually look like physical objects, also known as hieroglyphs) evolved over time from around B.C.
into Babylonian-Assyrian Cuneiform (wedge shaped writing) around B.C. Note: The evolution of the pictograph went from the Ancient Sumerians (who developed the first Cuneiform language based on the pictographs) -> Babylonians.