He was a member of the Duquesne Reserve Officers' Training Corps and later served as an Air Force officer for two years stationed in Korea for one of those years. After graduation, and after a recommendation from then United States associate attorney general William P. RogersBell took a position with the civil rights division of the U. He was one of the few black lawyers working for the Justice Department at the time.
The Interest Convergence Paradigm in State Legislatures and School Finance Reform, Professor Bryan Adamson presents several assumptions upon which legislative solutions to school funding inequities can succeed.
In Part I of this study, interest convergence will be examined and the subsequent period of desegregation litigation following Brown v. Board Derrick bell interest convergence thesis Education  reviewed.
Understanding the Interest Convergence Thesis and Desegregation Litigation The interest-convergence thesis suggests that the upholding of social justice and fair treatment between African Americans and whites succeeds only when the interests of both groups converge. First, the decision would improve appeal for support of Third World countries in the fight against communism during the Cold War.
By the time Bell published the article on his interest-convergence dilemma, several Supreme Court cases had already proved to lessen the effectiveness of Brown.
After Brown, court decisions have upheld desegregation efforts by mandating school-wide plans to establish and preserve racial equality. In an analysis of the impact and effects on schools by court-ordered desegregation plans Sarah Reber evaluates more than one hundred districts which had been ordered to desegregate their classrooms.
While her findings suggest primarily negative long-term effects, Reber illustrates the significant reliance racial reform had on judicial remedies. In the following cases, the history of racial desegregation litigation illustrates shifts along a progressive and regressive course.
Court Mandated Desegregation Green et al. County School Board of New Kent County  provides an early insight into the development of court-ordered desegregation plans. The New Kent County schools had an elementary and high school for whites and another elementary and high school for Negros.
Almost twenty years since the first court-orders were given in cases such as Green and Keyes,  schools began seeking dismissal from mandated desegregation plans.
Dowell  held that the dismissal of such plans would be appropriate where in good faith, the district had the vestiges of past de jure segregation eliminated. Dowell, approximately two decades after court injunctions to desegregate schools had been first imposed, provided districts under court injunctions an opportunity to cease enforcing policies that remedied past desegregation.
Recently, however, the Supreme Court has altered its perspective towards desegregation efforts. An interest linked to nothing other than proportional representation of various races supports indefinite use of racial classifications, employed first to obtain the appropriate mixture of racial views and then to ensure that the program continues to reflect that mixture.
In each state, efforts to desegregate schools have shifted from integrating students in schools towards providing an equitable and adequate education.
School finance struggles since the s have relied on both litigation and legislation to remedy insufficient funding systems. At present, forty-five states have had litigation challenging their funding formulas for schools.
Instead, school finance litigation has frequently served to directly and narrowly assess state funding systems related to their constitution. In Lake View School Dist. Arkansas the court held: The legislative and judicial branches of a state government do not operate at cross purposes in the context of school-funding.
A refusal by the Arkansas Supreme Court to review school funding under the state constitution on the basis that the issue involved a political question or violated the doctrine of separation of powers would be a complete abrogation of its judicial responsibility and would work a severe disservice to the people of the state.
Whereas the courts have generally refrained from arbitrating questions of political and non-judiciable issues, state legislatures have upheld the authority to reshape and alter the funding schemes within their schools. At the cornerstone of his argument is the elimination of local school property taxes, a growing concern in the state, which Cox suggest would merely cost citizens a penny more per dollar on certain other taxes, such as the sales tax, to completely eliminate school property taxes.
Numerous states have had reform efforts to change their existing school funding systems. However, the legislation before the Pennsylvania General Assembly aims to remove the existence of local school property taxes, a goal that other states have had significant difficulty achieving.
In fact, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court has upheld the constitutionality of the funding scheme  and the federal courts have been unable to provide a decision on the matter.
In his article,  Derrick Bell suggests that the Brown decision demonstrated a point in time when few whites in power found economic and political advantages in the abandonment of segregation, leading to a convergence of interests that benefited both the white majority and African Americans.
The convergence of interests results from two separate issues present in Pennsylvania. First, property taxes have been growing faster than the inflation rate, affecting all income levels and races. In explaining reasons to support the legislation, interest groups have illustrated the importance of this issue to the public.
One administrator from a predominately white sub-urban school district notes that, Whether it is from local taxpayer frustration with the antiquated property tax system for public education funding, the strictures of Act 1 that have limited the amount of revenue increases to less than real inflationary cost, or the current economic climate, there is no more money available in our local tax situation to accommodate these brainstorms.
As a result of regressive state funding, these struggling schools also receive less money per pupil for student expenditures than other districts. Based on previous school funding data, these interest groups note that the funding scheme hinders numerous schools from providing an equitable education since some schools receive a third of the necessary resources compared to others.
Reforming School Finance in Pennsylvania Context of Previous Litigation and Current Funding Legislation Funding of public education in Pennsylvania is divided between local, state, and federal sources.
While federal funding is significant, the local and state sources are the primary revenues. Through legislation, schools have been granted the authorization to levy local revenues. The Public School Code of granted the original authority for school districts to levy property taxes to fund public education.
However, a later amendment allowed an additional amount to be levied to pay for expenditures such as salaries and building rental. The effect of this amendment made the property tax essentially limitless.() [hereinafter Bell, Interest-Convergence Dilemma].
Throughout this Article, however, I gen- erally use the terms "thesis" and "theory" interchangeably. Bell has been memorialized at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law with the Derrick A. Bell Constitutional Law Commons which was opened on March 20, in the school's Barco Law Library.
the concept of interest convergence. This is the thesis that judicial progress only occurs when it suits the interest of dominant forces in society.
Racial justice Thesis pioneered by Derrick Bell that the majority group tolerates advances. in fisher v. university of texas derrick bell’s interest convergence theory is on a collision course with the viewpoint diversity rationale in higher.
DO THE RIGHT THING: UNDERSTANDING THE INTEREST-CONVERGENCE THESIS Stephen M. Feldman* INTRODUCTION Professor Derrick Bell was one of the most influential constitutional scholars of the last fifty years.
He helped create a genre of legal scholar-ship—critical race theory—and pioneered storytelling as a scholarly meth-od. DO THE RIGHT THING: UNDERSTANDING THE INTEREST-CONVERGENCE THESIS Stephen M. Feldman* INTRODUCTION Professor Derrick Bell was one of the most influential constitutional scholars of the last fifty years.
He helped create a genre of legal scholar-ship—critical race theory—and pioneered storytelling as a scholarly meth-od.