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One of the main factors for continuous research to create more efficient communication systems is the need to send more data information through a communication medium channel , communication through fiber optic is one of them.
Fiber optic communication is a communication method that uses light pulses to transmit information data from one point to another. Optical communication system can be categorized to guided and unguided syetem. In guided lightwave system, the transmitter emits optical beam through a fiber optic which in that case the beam fiber optic history essays for sale spatially confined.
Unguided ligtwave system is similar to the spreading of microwave system because the optical beam spreads in space but in forward direction because of its short wavelength.
Unguided optical systems are less proper for broadcasting applications than microwave systems because of beam short wavelength they need very accurate pointing between the transmitter and receiver .
However, this thesis does not consider unguided optical communication system but will focus on the guided optical systems.
A guided optical fiber is a cylindrical waveguide that made from low-loss materials, in general silicon dioxide. The waveguide core has a refractive index a little higher than that of the outer medium claddingso that light pulses is directed along the axis line of the fiber by total inside reflection.
Generally a guided fiber optic communication systems consist of an optical transmitter to change an electrical signal to an optical signal for transmission through inside the optical fiber, a cable has several bundles of optical fibers, optical amplifiers to amplify the power of the optical signal, and an optical receiver to reconvert the received optical signal back to the original electrical signal .
Optical fiber technology development is considered as a major driver to the revolution of the information technology and tremendous progress on telecommunication that has been seen in recent years. Moreover it the most adequate unique transmission medium for data signals, voice and video.
Indeed, at present optical fibers have entered virtually in all sectors of telecommunication networks . By yearHeinrich Lamm introduced one of the first attempts to use optical fiber to send image by using a short bundle of optical fiber for possible medical imaging.
However, no additional works were done after the demonstration phase, because the technology for manufacturing low-loss fibers with acceptable light confinement was not yet done . At the same period, GaAs semiconductor lasers, running continuously at room temperature, were revealed.
Low loss attenuation optical fibers together with optical so- urces led the efforts for enhancing the fiber-optic communication systems . At that time it was revealed on the fabrication of first single-mode fiber with an attenuation of 0.
In the beginning offirst terrestrial optical system became available commercially with less than 0. Within period of less than quarter of a century the development has been rapid as by an increasing in the system capacity by a factor of.
To increase the benefits of fiber optic many technologies have been developed to get more network capacity, reliability, scalability and less cost and one of the first technological advances was the capability to carry multiple light channels through one fiber optic cable.
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It achieves buy combining multiplexing different optical frequencies wavelengths onto a single fiber and that what is known Wavelength Division Multiplexing WDM . First WDM created in the late s by using the two widely spaced wavelengths in the nm and nm or nm and nm regions.
The a second generation of WDM saw in early s, occasionally called narrowband WDM, in which 2 to 8 channels were used. These channels were now apart at an interval of about GHz in the nm window.
With 16 to 40 channels and spacing from to GHz Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing DWDM systems were emerging in mids , since year when the number of wavelengths reached to over per fiber and that number provides massive network capacity . Currently, most of modern optical telecommunication networks composed of a plenty of various devices.
Working such a network is a challenge task. It needs an accurate planning; taking into account all technological needs and offers of the optics, to end up with an operating network which provides the best return on the spent investments. Fiber optic has vast advantages over other transmission media because: Unlike the copper that depletes the natural earth resources, it is made of cheapest resources in the earth sand.
The information travels with the speed of light. It is not affected by atmospheric conditions.
The only limitation that limits the bandwidth of an optical fiber is dependent on the equipment that creates the light in the fiber . Optical Fiber Structure In its simplest form an optical fiber consists of cladding that surrounds the cylindrical core that is made of silica glass.Fiber Optics Fiber Optic Cable Facts "A relatively new technology with vast potential importance, fiber optics is the channeled transmission of light through hair-thin glass fibers.".
Fiber-optic Communication - History History In Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created a very early precursor to fiber-optic communications, the Photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C.
Bell considered it his most important invention. initiativeblog.com the basic elements of a Fiber-Optic communication system We will write a custom essay sample on Fiber optics specifically for you for only $ $/page.
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