Baljit Singh Introduction For centuries, many words referring to all people were specifically manly. True gender sensitivity moves past these terms where we include all and exclude none.
Screening[ edit ] Currently, in the United States and over 40 other countries, every child born is screened for hydroxylaase CAH at birth. Newborns detected early enough can be placed on medication and live a relatively normal life. The screening process, however, is characterized by a high false positive rate.
In one study,  CAH screening had the lowest positive predictive value true-positive cases among 20, abnormal screening results in a 2-year period, or 0. According to this estimate, unaffected newborns required clinical and laboratory follow-up for every true case of CAH.
Treatment[ edit ] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. July This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Treatment of all forms of CAH may include any of: Supplying enough glucocorticoid to reduce hyperplasia and overproduction of androgens or mineralocorticoids Providing replacement mineralocorticoid and extra salt if the person is deficient Providing replacement testosterone or estrogens at puberty if the person is deficient Additional treatments to optimize growth by delaying puberty or delaying bone maturation All of these management issues are discussed in more detail in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to hydroxylase deficiency.
Dexamethasone is used as an off-label early prenatal treatment for the symptoms of CAH in female fetuses, but it does not treat the underlying congenital disorder.
A Swedish clinical trial found that treatment may cause cognitive and behavioural defects, but the small number of test subjects means the study cannot be considered definitive. A American study found no negative short term outcomes, but "lower cognitive processing in CAH girls and women with long-term DEX exposure.
Citing a known attempt by a man using his knowledge of the fraternal birth order effect to avoid having a homosexual son by using a surrogatethe essayists Professor Alice Dreger of Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, Professor Ellen Feder of American University and attorney Anne Tamar-Mattis suggest that pre-natal "dex" treatments constitute the first known attempt to use in utero protocols to reduce the incidence of homosexuality and bisexuality in humans.
Due to advances in modern medicine, those couples with the recessive CAH genes have an option to prevent CAH in their offspring through preimplantation genetic diagnosis PGD. On the 3rd day, when the embryo has developed from one cell to about 4 to 6 cells, one of those cells is removed from the embryo without harming the embryo.
The embryo continues to grow until day 5 when it is either frozen or implanted into the mother. Meanwhile, the removed cell is analyzed to determine if the embryo has CAH.
If the embryo is determined to have CAH, the parents may make a decision as to whether they wish to have it implanted in the mother or not. Even these four studies were of low quality" I propose in this narrative that it is sometimes extremely difficult and even impossible to determine sex during life.
In one of the anatomical theaters of the hospital The general physiognomy was decidedly male in all respects. There were no feminine curves to the body. There was a heavy beard.
There was some delicacy of structure with muscles that were not very well developed The distribution of pubic hair was typical of the male.
Perhaps the lower extremities were somewhat delicate, resembling the female, and were covered with hair The penis was curved posteriorly and measured 6 cm, or with stretching, 10 cm.
The corona was 3 cm long and 8 cm in circumference. There was an ample prepuce. There was a first grade hypospadias There were two folds of skin coming from the top of the penis and encircling it on either side. These were somewhat loose and resembled labia majora.
De Crecchio then described the internal organs, which included a normal vaginauterusfallopian tubeand ovaries. It was of the greatest importance to determine the habits, tendencies, passions, and general character of this individual I was determined to get as complete a story as possible, determined to get at the base of the facts and to avoid undue exaggeration which was rampant in the conversation of many of the people present at the time of the dissection.
He interviewed many people and satisfied himself that Joseph Marzo "conducted himself within the sexual area exclusively as a male", even to the point of contracting the " French disease " on two occasions. The cause of death was another in a series of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea.
The term adrenogenital syndrome was applied to both sex-steroid producing tumors and severe forms of CAH for much of the 20th century, before some of the forms of CAH were understood.The Coddling of the American Mind. In the name of emotional well-being, college students are increasingly demanding protection from words and ideas they don’t like.
Gender inequality refers to unfair or unequal treatment of people based on their femininity or masculinity. This is often in reference to roles that society has stipulated by default for each gender type. Sexual inequality refers to bias treatment of people based on their male or female sexual.
Gender sensitivity is often used to mean the same as gender awareness. But it is actually the beginning of gender awareness, which is more analytical and critical, questions gender disparities, and motivates one toward actions to address gender issues.
The Education Issues Page is a discussion of what's wrong with public education in America today, with an emphasis on the liberalism and political correctness involved in public education. The quality of education is going down while the price keeps going up. The private university declined to comment or make anyone available for an interview.
In response to a list of questions, the school sent back a link to its sexual misconduct policy. The Effects of Gender Roles and Gender Identity on Behaviour Gender is a psychological term, which refers to our awareness and reaction to biological sex.