Subsequent events caused by the revolution include the Napoleonic warsthe restoration of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape. The longer term European consequences include the counter-enlightenment and romantic movement in Germany which arose in reaction to the imposition of French rationalist culture. This was accompanied by the reunification of Germany as a defensive measure against a future Napoleon.
Rising social and economic inequality,   new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt,  and political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
French music, the partisans of both sides appealed to the French public "because it alone has the right to decide whether a work will be preserved for posterity or will be used by grocers as wrapping-paper".
Reigning opinions are no longer received from the court; it no longer decides on reputations of any sort The court's judgments are countermanded; one says openly that it understands nothing; it has no ideas on the subject and could have none.
After the British surrender at the Battle of Saratogathe French sent 10, troops and millions of dollars to the rebels. Despite succeeding in gaining independence for the Thirteen Colonies, France was severely indebted by the American Revolutionary War.
Poor harvests lasting several years and an inadequate transportation system both contributed to making food more expensive. Many were so destitute that they couldn't even feed their families and resorted to theft or prostitution to stay alive. Meanwhile, the royal court at Versailles was isolated from and indifferent to the escalating crisis.
While in theory King Louis XVI was an absolute monarch, in practice he was often indecisive and known to back down when faced with strong opposition. While he did reduce government expenditures, opponents in the parlements successfully thwarted his attempts at enacting much needed reforms.
The Enlightenment had produced many writers, pamphleteers and publishers who could inform or inflame public opinion. The opposition used this resource to mobilise public opinion against the monarchy, which in turn tried to repress the underground literature.
These included resentment of royal absolutism ; resentment by peasants, labourers and the bourgeoisie towards the traditional seigneurial privileges possessed by the nobility; resentment of the Catholic Church's influence over public policy and institutions; aspirations for freedom of religion ; resentment of aristocratic bishops by the poorer rural clergy; aspirations for social, political and economic equality, and especially as the Revolution progressed republicanism ; hatred of Queen Marie-Antoinettewho was falsely accused of being a spendthrift and an Austrian spy; and anger towards the King for dismissing ministers, including finance minister Jacques Neckerwho were popularly seen as representatives of the people.
Originally largely apolitical, Freemasonry was radicalised in the late 18th century through the introduction of higher grades, which emphasised themes of liberty, equality, and fraternity. Virtually every major player in the Revolution was a Freemason and these themes became the widely recognised slogan of the revolution.
He could not be made an official minister because he was a Protestant. Faced with opposition from the parlements, Calonne organised the summoning of the Assembly of Notables.
But the Assembly failed to endorse Calonne's proposals and instead weakened his position through its criticism. In response, the King announced the calling of the Estates-General for Maythe first time the body had been summoned since This was a signal that the Bourbon monarchy was in a weakened state and subject to the demands of its people.
It had last met in Elections were held in the spring of ; suffrage requirements for the Third Estate were for French-born or naturalised males, aged 25 years or more, who resided where the vote was to take place and who paid taxes. Strong turnout produced 1, delegates, including clergy, nobles and members of the Third Estate.
The lands were controlled by bishops and abbots of monasteries, but two-thirds of the delegates from the First Estate were ordinary parish priests; only 51 were bishops.
About a third of these deputies were nobles, mostly with minor holdings.
Half were well educated lawyers or local officials. Nearly a third were in trades or industry; 51 were wealthy land owners.
Many assumed the Estates-General would approve future taxes, and Enlightenment ideals were relatively rare. What is the Third Estate?This latest work from an author known for her contributions to the new cultural history is a multidisciplinary investigation of the foundations of modern politics.
French Revolution, The Questions and Answers - Discover the initiativeblog.com community of teachers, mentors and students just like you that can answer any question you might have on French Revolution. French literature - From to the midth century: The French Revolution of provided no clean break with the complex literary culture of the Enlightenment.
Many ways of thinking and feeling—whether based on reason, sentiment, or an exacerbated sensibility—and most literary forms persisted with little change from to French literature, the body of written works in the French language produced within the geographic and political boundaries of initiativeblog.com French language was one of the five major Romance languages to develop from Vulgar Latin as a result of the Roman occupation of western Europe..
Since the Middle Ages, France has enjoyed an exceptional position in European intellectual life. The French Revolution (–) was a period of ideological, political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French polity, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of republicanism, citizenship, and rights.
Harold Berman's masterwork narrates the interaction of evolution and revolution in the development of Western law. This new volume explores two successive transformations of the Western legal tradition under the impact of the sixteenth-century German Reformation and the seventeenth-century English Revolution, with particular emphasis on Lutheran and Calvinist influences.