His father was a master harness maker, and his mother was the daughter of a harness maker, though she was better educated than most women of her social class. Pietism was an evangelical Lutheran movement that emphasized conversion, reliance on divine grace, the experience of religious emotions, and personal devotion involving regular Bible study, prayer, and introspection. Leibniz — was then very influential in German universities.
Then, when all the Rationalists, like DescartesSpinozaand Leibnizappealed to self-evidence and all came up with radically different theories, it should have become clear that this was not a good enough procedure to adjudicate the conflicting claims. Kant does not directly pose the Problem of First Principles, and the form of his approach tends to obscure it.
The "Analytic," about secure metaphysics, is divided into Kants moral theory "Analytic of Concepts" and the "Analytic of Principles. Since it is not raised at all, one is left with the impression that it has somehow, along the way, actually already been dealt with.
The Rationalists never worried too much about that. For Descartes, any notion that could be conceived "clearly and distinctly" could be used without hesitation or doubt, a procedure familiar and unobjectionable in mathematics.
It was the Empiricists who started demanding certificates of authenticity, since they wanted to trace all "ideas" back to experience.
Thus, Kant begins, like Hume, asking about the legitimacy of concepts. However, the traditional Problem has already insensibly been brought up; for in his critique of the concept of cause and effect, Hume did question the principle of causality, a proposition, and the way in which he expressed the defect of such a principle uncovered a point to Kant, which he dealt with back in the Introduction to the Critique, not in the "Transcendental Logic" at all.
Hume had decided that the lack of certainty for cause and effect was because of the nature of the relationship of the two events, or of the subject and the predicate, in a proposition. In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Hume made a distinction about how subject and predicate could be related: All the objects of human reason or enquiry may naturally be divided into two kinds, to wit, Relations of Ideas, and Matters of Fact.
Of the first kind are the sciences of Geometry, Algebra, and Arithmetic; and in short, every affirmation which is either intuitively or demonstratively certain [note: That the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the square of the two sides, is a proposition which expresses a relation between these figures.
That three times five is equal to the half of thirty, expresses a relation between these numbers.
Propositions of this kind are discoverable by the mere operation of thought, without dependence on what is anywhere existent in the universe.
Though there never were a circle or triangle in nature, the truths demonstrated by Euclid would for ever retain their certainty and evidence. Matters of fact, which are the second objects of human reason, are not ascertained in the same manner; nor is our evidence of their truth, however great, of a like nature with the foregoing.
The contrary of every matter of fact is still possible; because it can never imply a contradiction, and is conceived by the mind with the same facility and distinctness, as if ever so conformable to reality.
That the sun will not rise to-morrow is no less intelligible a proposition, and implies no more contradiction than the affirmation, that it will rise. We should in vain, therefore, attempt to demonstrate its falsehood. Were it demonstratively false, it would imply a contradiction, and could never be distinctly conceived by the mind.
The first now would seem properly more a matter of embarrassment than anything else. Whatever Hume expected from intuition or demonstration, it would be hard to find a mathematician today who would agree that "the truths demonstrated by Euclid would for ever retain their certainty and evidence.
The second paragraph, however, redeems the impression by giving us a logical criterion to distinguish between truths that are "relations of ideas" and those that are "matters of fact": A matter of fact can be denied without contradiction.
This was the immediate inspiration to Kant, who can have asked himself how something "demonstratively false" would "imply a contradiction. On the other hand, a proposition that cannot be denied without contradiction must contain something in the predicate that is already in the subject, so that the item does turn up posited in the subject but negated in the predicate of the denial.
|Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter.|
|Work not for a reward; but never cease to do thy work. The Bhagavad Gita2:|
|Kant, Immanuel | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||The argument of the Transcendental Deduction is one of the most important moments in the Critique, but it is also one of the most difficult, complex, and controversial arguments in the book.|
This struck Kant as important enough that, like Hume, he founded a whole critique on it, and also produced some more convenient and expressive terminology. Propositions true by "relations of ideas" are now analytic "taking apart"while propositions not so founded are synthetic "putting together".
Kant did not see that the predicates of the axioms of geometry contained any meaning already expressed in the subjects.5. Moral Theory. Kant’s moral theory is organized around the idea that to act morally and to act in accordance with reason are one and the same.
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Kant's Moral Theory. Kant's Moral Philosophy is, as you would expect, difficult to understand.
It has become popular in our times, mainly as a viable alternative to utilitarianism. Since utilitarian theory downplays the moral significance of such important elements as respect, human dignity, individual rights, and minority protection, an.
Adam Smith () wrote two great books, the well-known Wealth of Nations and Theory of Moral Sentiments which has been overshadowed by his treatise on economics. Contrary to popular belief, these two works do not exist in isolation from one another.
1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy. The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of the Groundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seek out” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics of morals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priori moral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times and cultures.
Kant pursues this project . Immanuel Kant, The greatest member of the idealist school of German philosophy, Immanuel Kant was born at Königsberg, where he spent his entire life, the son of a saddler, reputedly of Scottish origin.