Bargaining power, management control, and performance in the United States-China joint ventures: JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive.
He has noted that early corrective surgeries for a cleft palate sensitized him to human vulnerability and interdependence, and that subsequent childhood struggles with fluid verbal communication may partly explain his theoretical interest in communication and mutual recognition.
At the end of the war, people born between and were drafted and sent to help man antiaircraft artillery defenses. Over a million youth served as such personnel. These experiences fostered a political skepticism and vigilance born out of having been exploited, and an affinity for the nascent liberal democratic principles of postwar Germany.
Reflecting on his upbringing during the war, Habermas describes his family as having passively adapted to the Nazi regime—neither identifying with nor opposing it. He was recruited into the Hitler Youth in and sent to man defenses on the western front shortly before the war ended.
Soon thereafter he learned of the Nazi atrocities through radio broadcasts of the Nuremburg trials and concentration camp documentaries at local theaters. Such experiences left a deep impact: He was increasingly frustrated with the unwillingness of German politicians and academics to own up to their role in the war.
In interviews, he has recalled leaving a campaign rally in after being disgusted by the far-right connotations of the flags and songs used. He was similarly disappointed by German academics. At university he studied the work of Arnold Gehlen and Martin Heidegger extensively, but their prior Nazi ties were not discussed openly.
He wrote a piece critiquing Gehlen a few years later Around the same time he was distressed to learn Rothacker and Becker had also been active Nazi party members. Near the end of his studies Habermas worked as a freelance journalist and published essays in the intellectual journal Merkur.
He took an interest in the interdisciplinary Institute for Social Research affiliated with the University of Frankfurt. The Institute had returned from wartime exile inand Adorno became director in While at the Institute Habermas studied philosophy and sociology, worked on research projects, and continued to publish op-ed pieces.
One such piece, Marx and Marxism, struck Horkheimer as too radical. Horkheimer wrote to Adorno suggesting he dismiss Habermas from the Institute. Habermas did not want to alter his project, so he completed his dissertation at the University of Marburg under the Marxist political scientist Wolfgang Abendroth.
It chronicled the rise of the bourgeois public sphere in 18th and 19th century Europe, as well as its decline amidst the mass consumer capitalism of the 20th century. Habermas gave an account of the way in which newspapers, coffee shops, literary journals, pubs, public meetings, parliament and other public forums facilitated the emergence of powerful new social norms of discourse and debate that mediated between private interests and the public good.
These forums functioned as mechanisms to disseminate information and help freely form the public political will needed for collective self-determination. These norms also partly embodied important principles like equality, solidarity, and liberty.
By the late 19th century, however, capitalism was increasingly monopolistic. Large corporations easily influenced the state and society. Economic elites could use ownership of the media and other previously public forums to manipulate or manufacture public opinion and buy-off politicians.
Citizens deliberating about the common good were transformed into atomized consumers pursuing private interests. While his narrative was pessimistic, the end of Structural Transformation seems to hold out hope that the truncated normative potential of the public sphere may yet be revived.
In the spirit of his early call for renewed public sphere debate, Habermas has consistently engaged political movements as a public intellectual and taken part in various scholarly debates. This has not always been easy.
After returning to Frankfurt he had been a mentor for the German student movement, but had a falling out with student radicals in The breaking point was when a student at a protest against the Shah of Iran was shot and fatally beaten by plainclothes police, who then tried to cover up the incident.
This stoked the flames of student protests. Sit-ins and protests crippled everyday life. Habermas worried that protest leaders seemed to be advocating an unsophisticated and extra-legal opposition to any and all authority that could easily lead to violence.
Rapprochement would only come a decade later when, in the aftermath of a series of killings by the radical left-wing Red Army Faction, politicians on the right tried to garner political capital by suggesting that such terrorism was rooted in the ideas of Frankfurt School Critical Theory. Habermas and Dutschke published pieces repudiating the accusation.
As a public intellectual, Habermas has engaged a variety of topics: In the second half of the eighties he was also a key voice in the Historikerstreit debate between historians, philosophers, and other academics about the proper way for Germany to situate and remember the Holocaust amidst the history of other atrocities.
In he made important contributions to public debate about the reunification of Germany. While Habermas was not against reunification, he was critical of the speed and manner in which reunification was carried out.Thomas C. Schelling, Innovative applied game theorist.. Originating from Oakland, California, Thomas C.
Schelling obtained his BA from Berkeley and his Ph.D. from Harvard in After a period as an adviser at the White House and several government agencies, Schelling joined the faculty at Yale in , an subsequently Harvard in , where he remained until This response essay explores some of the key areas of agreement and disagreement between two recent articles on Cold War-era assessments of the Soviet economy.
Autonomous vehicles, popularly known as self-driving cars, have the potential to transform travel behavior. However, existing analyses have ignored strategic interactions with other road users. In this article, I use game theory to analyze the interactions between pedestrians and autonomous vehicles, with a focus on yielding at crosswalks.
Thomas Crombie Schelling (April 14, – December 13, ) was an American economist and professor of foreign policy, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public Policy at University of Maryland, College initiativeblog.com was also co-faculty at the New England Complex Systems initiativeblog.com was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with.
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Thle American Economic Review VOLUME XLVI JUNE NUMBER THREE AN ESSAY ON BARGAINING BY THOMAS C. SCHELLING* This paper presents a tactical approach to the analysis of bargaining. The subject includes both explicit bargaining and the tacit kind in.