Tweet For the next two weeks or so, GeoCurrents will examine the Caucasus. This unusually long focus on a particular place derives from several reasons. The Caucasus is one of the most culturally complex and linguistically diverse parts of the world, noted as well for its geopolitical intricacy and intractable conflicts. Struggles in the Caucasus have global ramifications, as was made evident in the summer of when the Russian military triumphed over the U.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region  The region has many different languages and language families.
There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. In addition, Indo-European languages, such as Armenian and Ossetianand Turkic languagessuch as AzerbaijaniKumyk language and Karachay—Balkarare spoken in the area. Russian is used as a lingua franca most notably in the North Caucasus.
Twelver Shi'ism has many adherents in the southeastern part of the region, in Azerbaijan which extends into Iran.
History of the Caucasus Located on the peripheries of TurkeyIranand Russiathe region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries.
Throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world. The territory of the Caucasus region was inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era.
Inearly human that is, The caucasus region fossils dating back 1. Scientists now classify the assemblage of fossil skeletons as the subspecies Homo erectus georgicus.
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Later ancient kingdoms of the region included ArmeniaAlbaniaColchis and Iberiaamong others. These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires, including Mediathe Achaemenid EmpireParthiaand the Sassanid Empirewho would altogether rule the Caucasus for many hundreds of years.
By the time of the first century BC, Zoroastrianism had become the dominant religion of the region; however, the region would go through two other religious transformations. Owing to the strong rivalry between Persia and Romeand later Byzantiumthe latter would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region.
The region may have formidable mountain barriers, but it also contains a broad swath of lower lands sandwiched between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges, which long formed an important trade corridor and is now a major oil-pipeline route. The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region in Eurasia bordered on the south by Iran, on the southwest by Turkey, on the west by the Black Sea, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the north by Russia. The Persian name for the region is Qafqâz. Caucasus Region Two-way goods trade between the United States and Caucasus region-comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia-totaled $ billion in , equivalent to the United States' 56th largest trading partner.
Middle Ages[ edit ] Kingdom of Georgia at the peak of its might, early 13th century. As the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia an eponymous branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as state religion in ADand Caucasian Albania and Georgia had become Christian entities, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism and pagan beliefs.
With the Muslim conquest of Persialarge parts of the region came under the rule of the Arabsand Islam penetrated into the region. Caucasian Albania maintained close ties with Armenia and the Church of Caucasian Albania shared same Christian dogmas with the Armenian Apostolic Church and had a tradition of their Catholicos being ordained through the Patriarch of Armenia.
In — Georgian Queen Tamar 's armies crushed new Seljuk Turkish invasions from the south-east and south and launched several successful campaigns into Seljuk Turkish-controlled Southern Armenia. The Georgian Kingdom continued military campaigns in the Caucasus region. As a result of her military campaigns and the temporary fall of the Byzantine Empire inGeorgia became the strongest Christian state in the whole Near East area, encompassing most of the Caucasus stretching from Northern Iran and Northeastern Turkey to the North Caucasus.
The Caucasus region was conquered by the OttomansMongolslocal kingdoms and khanates, as well as, once again, Iran. Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia, original building completed in AD, a religious centre of Armenia.
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Georgia, original building completed in the 4th century.
It was a religious centre of monarchical Georgia.The region may have formidable mountain barriers, but it also contains a broad swath of lower lands sandwiched between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges, which long formed an important trade corridor and is now a major oil-pipeline route.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region in Eurasia bordered on the south by Iran, on the southwest by Turkey, on the west by the Black Sea, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the north by Russia. The Persian name for the region is Qafqâz. Caucasia includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands.
Caucasus Ethnicity. The Greater Caucasus Range, running northwest to southeast between the Black and Caspian Seas, is the traditional line of demarcation between the continents of Europe and Asia.
The region may have formidable mountain barriers, but it also contains a broad swath of lower lands sandwiched between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges, which long formed an important trade corridor and is now a major oil-pipeline route. Covers Transcaucasia and southern part of the North Caucasus.
Relief shown by gradient tints and spot heights. Also shows energy/mineral resources. " State (INR/GGI)." Includes notes and location map. Text, index of places by geographic coordinates, and directory of place-name changes on verso.
Available also through the Library of Congress . The Caucasus / ˈ k ɔː k ə s ə s / or Caucasia / k ɔː ˈ k eɪ ʒ ə / is a region located at the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.