History of late ancient Christianity Changes in extent of the Empire ruled from Constantinople. The two halves of the Empire had always had cultural differences, exemplified in particular by the widespread use of the Greek language in the Eastern Empire and its more limited use in the West Greek, as well as Latin, was used in the West, but Latin was the spoken vernacular. By the time Christianity became the state religion of the Empire at the end of the 4th century, scholars in the West had largely abandoned Greek in favor of Latin. Even the Church in Rome, where Greek continued to be used in the liturgy longer than in the provinces, abandoned Greek.
A Church Dividing Issue?: For most Western Christians, this term continues to be a part of the central formulation of their faith, a formulation proclaimed in the liturgy and used as the basis of catechesis and theological reflection.
It is, for Catholics and most Protestants, simply a part of the ordinary teaching of the Church, and as such, integral to their understanding of the dogma of the Holy Trinity. As the medieval rift between Eastern and Western Christians grew more serious, the theology associated with the term Filioque, and the issues of Church structure and authority raised by its adoption, grew into a symbol of difference, a classic token of what each side of divided Christendom has found lacking or distorted in the other.
Our common study of this question has involved our Consultation in much shared research, prayerful reflection and intense discussion.
It is our hope that many of the papers produced by our members during this process will be published together, as the scholarly context for our common statement.
A subject as complicated as this, from both the historical and the theological point of view, calls for detailed explanation if the real issues are to be clearly seen. Samsonmakes kings and military chieftains into prophets I Sam In the New Testament writings, the Holy Spirit of God pneuma Theou is usually spoken of in a more personal way, and is inextricably connected with the person and mission of Jesus.
The Holy Spirit leads Jesus into the desert to struggle with the devil Mt 4. In the narrative of Acts, it is the Holy Spirit who continues to unify the community 4. In his farewell discourse in the Gospel of John, Jesus speaks of the Holy Spirit as one who will continue his own work in the world, after he has returned to the Father.
All that the Father has is mine; therefore I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to you. It is this same Spirit, communicated now to us, who conforms us to the risen Lord, giving us hope for resurrection and life Rom 8.
Historical Considerations Throughout the early centuries of the Church, the Latin and Greek traditions witnessed to the same apostolic faith, but differed in their ways of describing the relationship among the persons of the Trinity.
The difference generally reflected the various pastoral challenges facing the Church in the West and in the East. The Nicene Creed bore witness to the faith of the Church as it was articulated in the face of the Arian heresy, which denied the full divinity of Christ.
In the years following the Council of Nicaea, the Church continued to be challenged by views questioning both the full divinity and the full humanity of Christ, as well as the divinity of the Holy Spirit.
Against these challenges, the fathers at the Council of Constantinople affirmed the faith of Nicaea, and produced an expanded Creed, based on the Nicene but also adding significantly to it.
The Creed of Constantinople affirmed the faith of the Church in the divinity of the Spirit by saying: The acts of the Council of Constantinople were lost, but the text of its Creed was quoted and formally acknowledged as binding, along with the Creed of Nicaea, in the dogmatic statement of the Council of Chalcedon Within less than a century, this Creed of had come to play a normative role in the definition of faith, and by the early sixth century was even proclaimed in the Eucharist in Antioch, Constantinople, and other regions in the East.
In regions of the Western churches, the Creed was also introduced into the Eucharist, perhaps beginning with the third Council of Toledo in It was not formally introduced into the Eucharistic liturgy at Rome, however, until the eleventh century — a point of some importance for the process of official Western acceptance of the Filioque.
No clear record exists of the process by which the word Filioque was inserted into the Creed of in the Christian West before the sixth century. Tertullian, writing at the beginning of the third century, emphasizes that Father, Son and Holy Spirit all share a single divine substance, quality and power ibid.
This paragraph includes a stylistic revision in the reference to Hilary of Poitiers that the Consultation agreed to at its October meeting. This regional council anathematized those who did not accept the decrees of the first four Ecumenical Councils canon 11as well as those who did not profess that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son canon 3.
It appears that the Spanish bishops and King Reccared believed at that time that the Greek equivalent of Filioque was part of the original creed of Constantinople, and apparently understood that its purpose was to oppose Arianism by affirming the intimate relationship of the Father and Son.
From Spain, the use of the Creed with the Filioque spread throughout Gaul.
Nearly a century later, a council of English bishops was held at Hatfield in under the presidency of Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury, a Byzantine asked to serve in England by Pope Vitalian. According to the Venerable Bede Hist. By the seventh century, three related factors may have contributed to a growing tendency to include the Filioque in the Creed of in the West, and to the belief of some Westerners that it was, in fact, part of the original creed.
Second, throughout the fourth and fifth centuries a number of credal statements circulated in the Churches, often associated with baptism and catechesis.
The formula of was not considered the only binding expression of apostolic faith.
Third, however, and of particular significance for later Western theology, was the so-called Athanasian Creed Quicunque. This text was unknown in the East, but had great influence in the West until modern times.
A central emphasis of this Creed was its strong anti-Arian Christology: The influence of this Creed undoubtedly supported the use of the Filioque in the Latin version of the Creed of Constantinople in Western Europe, at least from the sixth century onwards.
The use of the Creed of with the addition of the Filioque became a matter of controversy towards the end of the eighth century, both in discussions between the Frankish theologians and the see of Rome and in the growing rivalry between the Carolingian and Byzantine courts, which both now claimed to be the legitimate successors of the Roman Empire.
In the wake of the iconoclastic struggle in Byzantium, the Carolingians took this opportunity to challenge the Orthodoxy of Constantinople, and put particular emphasis upon the significance of the term Filioque, which they now began to identify as a touchstone of right Trinitarian faith.VENICE  VENICE.
One of the first cities in Italy to engage in international commerce after the devastations of the early Middle Ages , Venice  established a maritime empire by and a territorial empire from the early s. Byzantine Gold Coins - The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used since the century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, .
The history of the Catholic Church in France is inseparable from the history of France, On Christmas Day , Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, This attempt at improving the relationship failed. A) The effects of a decline in trade were more severe in Rome than in Han.
B) only Rome suffered from major issues with government corruption. C) While the Han had difficulty collecting taxes, the Roman Empire maintained an efficient tax collection system. The Effects of Improving the Church’s Standing in the Roman Empire ( words, 16 pages) Title The effects of improving the Churchs standing in the EmpireIntroduction and BackgroundThere is no doubt that the rule of Constantine the Great had a significant impact on the church within the Roman Empire.
This " Roman Question " where both "Italy" and the Papacy required sovereignty in Rome was resolved some sixty years later through the Lateran Agreements of Through these agreements the Papacy was to be regarded as sovereign over a 40 hectare ( acre) Vatican City State.