Attached to a suction pump Up to 15 weeks' gestation, suction-aspiration or vacuum aspiration are the most common surgical methods of induced abortion.
What good is done, what harm? The foetus The foetus will be killed; I have argued above that while killing does not harm the entity killed, it is to be avoided on the grounds of the Golden Rule and that any emotional harm that might be done to others must be considered. The next question is, how much harm is there in killing a foetus in particular?
How can we judge the value of the life of a foetus? If we hold that human life is not special, according to the arguments referred to above, then we must judge the value of the life of a foetus by more general measures. There seem to be several ways if we are to try to be objective: Quantity All living things consist of cells.
There are single-celled organisms and multi-celled organisms. An adult human consists of several trillion million million cells. At conception the zygote starts at one cell and steadily increases in number of cells as it grows, later becoming an embryo and then a foetus when it becomes recognisably human.
Surely, if killing two animals is worse than killing one, then killing an animal with a million cells should be considered worse than killing an animal with a hundred cells.
Quality Plants do not feel pain.
They lack a nervous system. Therefore it is not possible to cause a plant pain in the same sense that an animal can be made to suffer pain.
The ability to suffer pain, and to be aware, is called sentience. I would think that the great majority of people would agree that 'higher' animals Man, for example are more sentient than 'lower' animals millipedes for example.
A zygote or embryo a few days or weeks old can not be called sentient. So far as I know, it does not in any way respond to changes in its environment, it has no nervous system, it certainly has no brain.
At the other end of the scale, a foetus near full term is probably nearly as sentient as a new-born baby. In his book, Practical Ethics, Peter Singer explains that the earliest a foetus can feel pain is at about eighteen weeks. Before this, killing it could not cause it to suffer.
Both by quality and quantity then, it seems that an early embryo must be considered greatly inferior to a late-term foetus, and both would have to be considered of less 'value' than a fully sentient adult human.
The 'can it suffer' argument, which I am inclined to believe is more compelling than the other two, suggests that no moral wrong is done by killing an early foetus.
The mother If a pregnancy puts the life of the mother at risk, then we should consider the value of the foetus compared to the value of the life of the mother the arguments above place a much lower value on the life of the foetus than on that of the mother ; remembering too that should the mother die early in the pregnancy the foetus will also die.
Another very important question is, is the potential child wanted? An unwanted child does not have a good life. If a mother has a child that she does not want then both she and the child may be greatly harmed; forcing the mother to continue with the pregnancy might produce a child with little chance of a happy life for itself and cause the mother much suffering as well.
The mother should have a right to control her own life, at least to the extent that in doing so she does minimal harm to others. In the part which merely concerns himself [or herself], his independence is, of right, absolute.
Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign. The foetus is totally dependent on its mother and is not sentient. The mother, and in many cases the child, suffers.Abortion is in direct defiance of the commonly accepted idea of the sanctity of human life; No civilized society permits one human to intentionally harm or take the life of another human without punishment, and abortion is no different.
Adoption is a viable alternative to abortion and accomplishes the same result. “Late-term abortion” is an inexact medical term that has been used in reference to induced abortions in the 3 rd trimester of pregnancy ( weeks) and sometimes to 2 nd trimester abortions ( weeks) .
Incomplete abortion risks: An incomplete abortion outlines that part of the fetus, or other products of pregnancy (placenta), may not drain completely from the uterus, requiring further medical procedures.
This may result in infection and bleeding. •Approximately , abortions occurred in the United States in The resulting abortion rate of abortions per 1, women of reproductive age represents a 14% decrease from the rate of per 1, women. Abortion procedures vary depending on which trimester you are in and whether you elect for surgical or medical abortion procedures.
This medication combination is not as commonly used in the U.S. with the availability of mifepristone, which works more effectively Third trimester or late term abortions are not legal in a number of states.
A late-term abortion is a different matter. The foetus may be beginning to develop the early stages of sentience, is capable of suffering and we need to consider the greater trauma to the mother and to the clinic or hospital staff (whose welfare seems often forgotten in discussions of the ethics of abortion) where the abortion is carried out.