A brief glance at a variety of ads shows that there appears to be a formula for celebrity perfume ads in American popular culture:
This paper reviews that research, describes problem areas which need research and presents hypotheses whose exploration should provide useful insights aimed at improving both advertising and over-all marketing strategy.
The critics state that the women shown in ads are too often "only housewives;" stupid or incompetent; dependent on men; decorative or sex objects; passive; and not involved in making major decisions Advertising Age, April 21, There is no doubt that many of these criticisms were, and to an extent still are, valid.
There also is no doubt that many advertisers have attempted to respond by discarding stereotypes and trying to create more appealing role incumbents. If any doubt exists that they have made these attempts in the face of extremely sparse information, we hope to dispel this doubt and will present a list of hypotheses which, though it is by no means exhaustive, is intended to encourage research in this area.
Such research should provide guidance for day-to-day advertising decisions and at the same time increase our knowledge of consumer behavior in general and female consumers in particular. Even though advertisers act in good faith, their efforts at discarding stereotypes while appealing to today's woman may encounter wholly unexpected criticism or marketplace failure.
Two examples will illustrate some of the pitfalls. A cosmetics ad showing the face of an attractive young woman was captioned: This particular advertisement was attacked by Women Against Violence Against Women, a group protesting messages which portray violence directed at women.
Both the manufacturer and agency agreed that the possibility of misinterpretation existed and withdrew the ad Liddick, The second example deals more directly with role portrayal.
Researchers created four versions of an ad for an instant breakfast drink. The ads varied only in the occupation of the spokesman - a housewife, a grade school teacher, a cab driver and a Ph.
In an experimental setting the ad with the female Ph. The reason appeared to be that this food product was associated with more traditional female roles Advertising Age, April 18, The problem of female role portrayal in advertisements has many dimensions.
We intend to deal with only a selected few of these dimensions -- most viable role for the chief female actor, her relationship to and interaction with significant others and the relationship between role portrayal and selected product categories. We have chosen these dimensions because they point to avenues of research which can help marketers in their analysis of basic strategy decisions such as product positioning and market segmentation while they improve their promotional strategy and execution.
Some dimensions such as sexual innuendo, nudity, and violence have been omitted from our discussion because, although they are important creative issues, they seem less germane to major strategic considerations.
Before we discuss topics which need to be researched, it is necessary to review the existing empirical work. They found few women shown in employment outside the home. Most employed women were entertainers; none were shown in professional or executive roles. This was true of both ads showing women only and those showing men and women together, although the frequency of employed women increased when men and women were shown together.
Women were rarely shown interacting with one another. Their conclusion was that stereotypical portrayals of women were dominant.The female model in this next perfume ad has an exotic, sultry aura which is enhanced by the black background. Her lips are seductively pursed and she is whispering to get "someone's" attention.
This ad seems to be implying that the woman uses the scent for the sole purpose of attracting a man. Sep 15, · Women: Representations in Advertising. a magazine ad for Listerine deodorant featured a photograph of a nude woman's back and the side of her breast.
The Charlie perfume campaign featured. Sep 23, · A Century of Women in Advertising Glamour magazine referenced the event in this ad in Ad Age that gives a great head-to-toe glimpse of women's style trends at the time.
for the perfume. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a branch of critical social analysis, which contributes to the latter a focus on discourse and on relations between discourse and other social elements (e.g. on how discourse figures in ideologies and power relations).
By Kourtland Koester and Carly Lucas Women vs. Men Perfume and Cologne Ads Pretty People In both advertisements, there is always somebody who is very beautiful. When analyzing an ad in terms of gender, it is certainly important to identify the ad's intended audience.
It is equally important to consider the ad's publishing context. As definitions of femininity have evolved, commercials trying to sell products to women have changed—and the same goes for commercials advertising products for men.